A stroke is a devastating disruption to the normal supply of the brain, which causes the death of brain tissue due to lack of oxygen and essential nutrients. It occurs when blood supply to a part of the brain is stopped or significantly weakened.
After a part of the nerve cells dies, the body loses one of the functions for which the dead cells were responsible: paralysis, loss of speech and other serious disorders occur. When a blockage of blood vessels occurs ischemic stroke, with a rupture - hemorrhagic.
The main method for the prevention of illness is the strict control of the main risk factors - high blood pressure, bad habits and elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Causes of stroke
The cause of a stroke is the disruption of blood flow to a region of the brain due to blockage (stenosis) or rupture of the cerebral artery. Most often, a stroke occurs in people suffering from heart problems or diseases that provoke disorders of the circulatory system.
Nearly 90 percent of strokes are ischemic, so the most common cause is cerebral thrombosis (artery blockage); such a plaque occurs most often in atherosclerosis. Lack of blood flow deprives brain cells of oxygen and nutrients, cells can begin to die within minutes.
In the case of a hemorrhagic form, the wall of the defective artery ruptures. It happens much less frequently than ischemic, but more dangerous. The provoking factors include high blood pressure and weak points in the walls of blood vessels (aneurysm).
If to characterize as a whole, the cause of the pathology is damage to the nerve cells located in the brain and controlling all the functions of the human body - all this leads to serious consequences. This disease is a leader among the causes of human disability and ranks 3rd among the causes of mortality.
Many factors can increase the risk of stroke. Some of these factors also increase the risk of developing heart disease.
- a history of relatives has a stroke or myocardial infarction;
- age 55 years and older;
- high blood pressure and cholesterol;
- overweight, diabetes, atherosclerosis;
- bad habits - smoking, alcohol.
It is necessary to think about the risk of pathology in the presence of one of the above factors.
The first signs of stroke in women and men
Before the onset of a stroke, symptoms of a blood supply to the brain are almost always observed. A precursor of a stroke may be a transient violation of cerebral circulation, or transient ischemic attack.
In women and men, this can be manifested by such signs as - headaches, dizziness, weakness. Further nausea and vomiting may occur.
Hemorrhagic - differs from ischemic in that the damage and rupture of the vessel occurs at elevated blood pressure, due to the fact that the wall of the artery during atherosclerosis of vessels is unevenly worn. Ischemic is more sneaky than hemorrhagic, therefore signs of ischemic stroke are lubricated, increase smoothly or "flicker".
The first signs of stroke in women:
- sudden vision loss;
- a clear lack of coordination;
- withdrawal of strength from arms and legs;
- loss of understanding of words or the ability to clearly speak;
- reduced sensitivity;
- smooth increase of the above signs.
Female stroke, the symptoms of which are sometimes unconventional at the onset of the disease, often makes it difficult to diagnose the disease early, which significantly delays the provision of adequate medical care.
Signs of a male stroke:
- severe headache, may be accompanied by vomiting;
- sudden weakness and dizziness;
- difficulty of pronunciation of speech and perception of the surrounding;
- blurred vision;
- clouding of consciousness;
If the pathology affects a specific part of the brain, then there will be failures in the work of that part of the body for which the affected area was responsible.
When the following specific symptoms of a stroke occur, an ambulance should be called in urgently. Also remember when these symptoms started, as their duration may be important for the choice of treatment.
- Ask the person to smile. With a stroke of smile will be a curve.
- Ask to keep your arms raised up, with weak muscles it can not be done.
- Ask the affected person to make a simple sentence. During an attack, the man or woman will speak slowly, stammering. It is like a drunken man’s speech.
- Ask to stick out the tongue - its tip deviates towards the focus in the brain.
These symptoms join the following signs:
- Acute headaches without any understandable reason;
- Blurred vision in one or both eyes;
- The appearance of unexpected weakness;
- Misunderstanding of speech;
- Partial or complete paralysis of the limbs.
Symptoms in a short-term ischemic attack are the same as in a normal stroke, but it lasts only a few minutes.
Patients with acute disorders of cerebral circulation should be immediately hospitalized in the hospital. Before the arrival of the doctor, you must immediately take independent measures. With a stroke, the first minutes and hours of the disease are the most expensive, since it is at this time that medical care may be most effective.
- Lay the patient on an elevation and raise his head by 30 degrees;
- Provide free access to fresh air;
- Take off your clothes so as not to hinder the movement of the chest;
- When vomiting, turn the victim's head on its side so that the vomit does not get into the respiratory tract;
- If the pressure is increased, give the patient the necessary medication, which he usually takes in such cases;
- Urgently call an ambulance.
After this illness, almost all patients need rehabilitation.
Stroke treatment is a long process that consists of a variety of medical procedures.
First of all, immediate hospitalization should be aimed at stabilizing the patient’s condition. In addition, the patient is prescribed oxygen therapy, rehabilitation and rehabilitation with the use of physical therapy, massage and physiotherapy.
After the first steps, the treatment of stroke is focused on helping the patient to restore his strength, functions and return to independent life. For this, there is a special rehabilitation program for people who have suffered a stroke.
Effects of stroke
A stroke can further lead to prolonged coma, paralysis, or paresis (muscle weakness) of muscles on one side or part of the body, impaired intelligence and / or memory.
The most common effects are:
- The most serious complication is paralysis;
- Weakness, stiffness and muscle pain;
- Lack of coordination;
- Speech disorders such as dysarthria and aphasia;
- The formation of pressure sores is the process of tissue death in places where the skin is under pressure;
- Problems with attention, perception of information and memory;
- Violation of urodynamics.
The consequences of cerebral circulation disorders can be both temporary and irreversible, at which the final cell death occurs.
The main importance for the prevention of pathology is the identification of risk factors, the implementation of the recommendations of the doctor and the observance of a healthy lifestyle.
- Measure blood pressure regularly;
- Lowering cholesterol and saturated fat in your diet;
- Diet rich in fruits and vegetables;
- Diabetes control;
- Physical activity and weight control.
In addition, for the prevention of stroke, doctors advise you to engage in psychoregulation, meditation and self-hypnosis, which will avoid stress and depression, as well as reduce mental pressure.