What it is: eczema - an inflammatory skin disease of allergic etiology, characterized by a tendency to relapse, the main symptoms manifest in the form of rash, itching and burning on the skin.
According to statistics, eczema accounts for about 40% of all skin diseases. As a rule, pathology begins in childhood and becomes chronic when improperly treated.
As a rule, with this disease, the skin becomes dry, red and itchy. There may be cracks. Eczema can occur on any part of the body, but most often it appears on the legs and arms.
By the nature of development, seborrhoeic, true, microbial and professional eczema is distinguished. Depending on the characteristics of the course of the disease, they are dry and moist.
From this article you will learn what it is, about the causes of its occurrence, symptoms and of course, how to treat eczema and what kind of doctor to contact.
Since the occurrence of pathology contributes to many factors, there are several types of eczema, depending on the cause, the location of the affected areas and the nature of the manifestations of the disease:
- mycotic (fungal);
Causes of Eczema
What it is? Eczema can develop with nervous disorders and with the occurrence of endocrine disruption. Chronic infections and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can also trigger the occurrence of the disease.
There are several types of eczema that affect the causes of their occurrence:
- The disease begins to develop under the influence of external factors (synthetic tissues, flowers, chemicals, dyes, and so on) and internal: hereditary predisposition, diseases of the endocrine system, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Seborrheic - begins to develop due to the negative influence of microbes (staphylococcus, the fungus of the genus Candida), against the background of disorders in the digestive and endocrine systems;
- Microbial - begins to appear on the background of pustular skin lesions, mycoses, varicose veins, after infection of burns;
- Professional - allergy occurs to chemical irritants that come into contact with exposed skin.
Yet the main cause of the disease is considered to be an allergic reaction of the human body to any food product or external irritant.
Symptoms of eczema
Depending on the type of eczema and the stage of development of the inflammation process on the skin, the symptoms of eczema can vary.
All types of eczema are characterized by a number of common symptoms, such as:
- a limited inflammation area appears on the skin, it is characterized by reddening (in some cases blue) of the skin, the seemingly thickened skin;
- on the site of inflammation a rash forms, depending on the type of illness, the rash may have its own characteristics;
- there is pruritus, which can be permanent, thereby disrupting daily activities and affecting sleep,
- if the rash bubbles are opened, painful sores and cracks appear in their place;
- during periods of exacerbation of eczema, there is often an increase in body temperature;
- after the inflammation subsides, the skin becomes dry, loses its former elasticity, begins to crack.
For the chronic form of the disease, periods of exacerbations occur, with active hyperemia, rashes and drip-weeping.
Eczema photo: initial stage
How does the initial stage of eczema in the photo:Eczema on the hands of the initial stage
Localized around scratches, abrasions, trophic ulcers, fistulas and infected wounds. The onset of the disease is determined by the appearance on the skin of large, sharply defined inflammatory foci of the disease, on the surface of which papulovesicles, seropapules, weeping erosion and purulent crusts are formed. The development of microbial eczema is accompanied by severe burning and unbearable itching.
In almost 80% of cases, this form develops in patients in whom a lipophilic yeast fungus Pityrosporum ovale is found in the lesions of the lesion. Also, seborrhea and the neuroendocrine disorders associated with it can provoke the development of the disease.
Itching and inflammation in seborrhoeic eczema are insignificant, the boundaries of eczematous foci are clear. Often the pathological process extends to the scalp and is accompanied by dandruff. Patients' hair is greasy, dull and glued.
Most often localized on the back of the brushes and face. In the acute period, the rash is numerous. After opening the inflamed vesicles, small punctate erosions are formed, which emit a serous fluid. The disease is accompanied by severe itching. Often eczema is complicated by secondary infection.
Occurs on the area of skin that is most often in contact with an irritating substance (as a rule, it is the skin of the hands). The main symptoms for professional eczema are the same as for the true one: itchy skin, reddening of the skin, the appearance of bubbles that break open and form crusts. An exacerbation of the disease occurs after each contact with an irritant.
It is distinguished by the concentration of erosion on the palms as well as the soles. Bubbles either open or dry, turning into serous-purulent crusts, or combined into multi-chamber bubbles. Over time, the focus of inflammation spreads to the hands, feet. Often dyshidrotichesky form of the disease is allocated trophic changes in the nails.
How to treat eczema
The dermatologist selects the treatment of eczema individually for each patient, taking into account the type of the disease, the severity of the manifestations of the inflammatory process, as well as the individual characteristics of the person.
Options for how to treat eczema are primarily assigned to:
- Hypoallergenic diet for up to six months (exclusion from the diet of smoked meat, pickles, canned food, spices, chocolate, alcohol, citrus with the transition to dairy and vegetable foods).
- The exclusion of contact with allergens, and this includes the rejection of cosmetic products, detergents, synthetic clothing, wearing a bandage to protect damaged skin from excessive insolation, wind, snow, cold, rejection of water procedures.
- Treatment of concomitant diseases and rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection.
- Ingestion of drugs: antiallergic drugs (suprastin, zyrtek, erius) for relieving itching, sedatives (valerian, motherwort, soothing fees), small tranquilizers, vitamins (vitamins C, groups B, A, E, P), calcium preparations.
- Topical treatment: astringent and disinfectant lotions and solutions, creams, pastes and powders (zinc, talc, starch). In the long run of eczema, hormonal preparations are used in the form of ointments and aerosols (hydrocortisone, lorinden C, fluorocort).
Also, for the effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to eliminate the impact of all factors of skin irritation (dirt, dampness, solar radiation, skin parasites, chemicals, etc.).
The diet of patients should be complete and rational for protein, minerals and vitamins. In the diet include the necessary amount of amino acids, as well as trace elements (cobalt, zinc, sulfur). It is necessary to begin to treat eczema as early as possible. It is important to consider the stage of development of the disease.
How to treat eczema folk remedies
Folk remedies should be used as adjuvant therapy after consulting with a dermatologist.
- Grated raw potatoes - lotions 2 r / d.
- Applications of grated raw potatoes and honey - ½ cup of potatoes mixed with 1 h / l of honey. Apply gruel for 2 hours to fix with a bandage.
- Currant leaves and viburnum fruits - pour boiling water over their mixture, make lotions after cooling.
- Strong decoction of dried bark of young willow: with eczema symptoms, wash damaged skin. Conduct 3-4 procedures.
- With a moist type, poultices from cabbage leaves cooked in milk and mixed with bran (1-2 p / d) help well.
- With the dry form, poultices from cranberry juice help.
In addition, we should not forget that the treatment of eczema involves strict adherence to a special diet, balneotherapy and physiotherapy.
Eczema ointments and creams
The main way to treat eczema are ointments and creams containing hormones (corticosteroids). Thanks to these means it is possible to accelerate the healing process of wounds and cracks in the skin, as well as to reduce the intensity of inflammation.
- Elokom comes in the form of a cream, ointment and lotion and, when used properly, relieves inflammation and reduces the symptoms of eczema. Elokom recommended to apply to the skin in the area of inflammation with a thin layer once a day. The duration of treatment is determined by the attending physician.
- Advantan cream is recommended for very dry skin, for example, for a dyshydrotic type of the disease. Advantan cream is usually prescribed for eczema in the soak stage. The medicine is applied to the skin with a thin layer once a day. The duration of treatment is determined by the attending physician and can be several months.
- Lokoid comes in the form of cream and ointment, which should be applied to the skin in the area of inflammation 3-4 times a day for several weeks.
It should be remembered that local remedies containing corticosteroids have side effects: skin thinning, a tendency to attach a fungal and bacterial infection, etc., and therefore their appointment is carried out only by the attending physician.
Adherence to a hypoallergenic diet is an essential part of a program that will cure eczema. Patients are recommended to limit the use of liquid and digestible carbohydrates, to give up alcohol, spicy and salty dishes, marinades, extractives and canned food.
At the same time, patients are advised to enrich their diet with cereals, dairy dishes, herbs, vegetables, boiled meat and fruits (except citrus fruits).