Cefazolin

Cefazolin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic from a large group of first-generation cephalosporins.

This beta-lactam medication is considered the least toxic in the cephalosporin antibacterial lineup. The main component of the drug is the sodium salt of cefazolin, in the form of white or yellowish-white crystals, easily soluble in water. The therapeutic effect of the antibacterial drug is based on a powerful bactericidal effect on a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms.

Cefazolin tablets and injections is effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including penicillin-producing varieties, against beta-hemolytic active streptococci of the first group, against some gram-negative microorganisms prone to mutations.

Clinico-pharmacological group

Cephalosporin I generation.

Terms of sale from pharmacies

You can buy by prescription.

Price

How much does Cefazolin cost in pharmacies? The average price is at the level of 27 rubles.

Composition and release form

The drug is available in the form of a yellow-white or white powder, which is dissolved for intramuscular or intravenous injection. The drug is packaged in vials. Such release form as Cefazolin tablets is not for sale.

  • Each bottle contains 250 mg, 500 mg or 1 g of the active active ingredient - Cefazolin in the form of sodium salt.

The powder is white or almost white in color, when dissolved it turns into a clear, colorless liquid with an insignificant specific smell.

Pharmacological effect

Cefazolin is the least toxic cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of bactericidal action.

Shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., Synthesizing and not synthesizing penicillinase, Streptococcus spp., Including the company, which has been found, is a company, has a business, etc. spp. Klebsiella spp., Haemopnylus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Mushrooms, rickettsia, protozoa, viruses, indole-positive Proteus strains are resistant to the drug (P.rettgeri, P.vulgaris, P. morgani).

The maximum concentration of the drug is achieved one hour after intramuscular injection and instantly after intravenous administration. According to the instructions, Cefazolin at a therapeutic concentration (90% of the administered dose) is stored in the blood for 8-12 hours. 90% of the drug is excreted by the kidneys in an unchanged state.

Indications for use

What helps? According to the instructions Cefazolin prescribed for the treatment of infections caused by the presence of microorganisms sensitive to the drug, namely:

  • infections of the osteo-articular apparatus;
  • osteomyelitis;
  • infections of the pelvic organs;
  • mastitis;
  • lung abscess, pneumonia, pleural empyema;
  • septicemia;
  • biliary and urinary tract infections;
  • peritonitis;
  • burns, wound infections;
  • endocarditis;
  • infections of soft tissue, skin;
  • otitis media;
  • syphilis;
  • gonorrhea.

Contraindications

The drug has a specific list of contraindications, so before you start therapy you should carefully study the attached instructions. Cefazolin injections should not be given to patients if they have one or more conditions:

  • pregnancy;
  • individual intolerance to the components;
  • cases of severe allergic reactions to cephalosporins;
  • severe renal failure;
  • severe liver disease, accompanied by dysfunction of the body;
  • age of patients up to 6 months (for this dosage form).

Relative contraindications are the lactation period and the presence of pseudomembranous colitis in the patient, including a history of.

Appointment during pregnancy and lactation

Cefazolin crosses the placenta and affects the fetus, so the antibiotic during pregnancy can only be used if there is absolute evidence when there is a threat to the life of the mother. To date, it has not been clarified exactly what effect Cefazolin has on the fetus, therefore, when deciding on the use of antibiotics by pregnant women, it is necessary to carefully weigh the possible risk / intended benefit ratio.

To date, Cefazolin tests have been conducted only on pregnant rats. Moreover, the drug in large doses did not cause teratogenic effects, that is, did not lead to the formation of congenital malformations of the fetus. However, similar controlled studies on pregnant women for obvious reasons have not been conducted.

Cefazolin also penetrates into breast milk, although there it is detected in small concentrations. However, if necessary, its use during lactation should transfer the child to the artificial mixture at the time of treatment.

Dosage and method of use

As indicated in the instructions for use Cefazolin prescribed in / m, in / in (jet and drip). The average daily intake for adults is 0.25-1 g; the frequency of administration is 3-4 times / day. The maximum daily dose - 6 g (in rare cases - 12 g). The average duration of treatment is 7-10 days.

For the prevention of postoperative infection - in / in 1 g for 0.5-1 h before surgery, 0.5-1 g - during surgery and 0.5-1 g - every 8 hours during the first days after surgery.

Patients with impaired renal function require a change in the dosage regimen in accordance with the CC values: with a CC of 55 ml / min or more or with a creatinine concentration in the plasma of 1.5 mg% or less, the full dose can be administered; with CC 54-35 ml / min or plasma creatinine concentration of 1.6-3.0 mg%, the full dose can be administered, but the intervals between injections should be increased to 8 hours; at CC 34–11 ml / min or plasma creatinine concentration 3.1–4.5 mg% - 1/2 dose at 12 h intervals; if QC is 10 ml / min or less, or when plasma creatinine concentration is 4.6 mg% or more, 1/2 of the usual dose every 18-24 hours. All recommended doses are administered after the initial loading dose of 500 mg.

Children 1 month and older - 25-50 mg / kg / day; in case of severe infection, the dose may be increased to 100 mg / kg / day. The frequency of administration is 3-4 times / day.

In children with impaired renal function, dosing regimen adjustment is carried out depending on the CC values: with CC 40–70 ml / min - 60% of the average daily dose and administered every 12 hours; with CC 20-40 ml / min - 25% of the average daily dose with an interval of 12 hours; if QC is 5-20 ml / min - 10% of the average daily dose every 24 hours. All recommended doses are administered after the initial loading dose.

How to mix powder for injections?

Instructions for the preparation of solutions for injection and infusion: 0.5 g of the drug is dissolved in 2 ml of water for injection, 1 g in 4 ml of water for injection. For intravenous bolus administration, the resulting solution is diluted with 5 ml of water for injection, then injected slowly over 3-5 minutes. For iv administration, the drug is diluted with 50-100 ml of 5% or 10% dextrose solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution, 5% sodium bicarbonate solution.

During breeding, the vials should be shaken vigorously until complete dissolution.

How much prick Cefazolin?

The duration of Cefazolin use depends on the severity of the infection and the speed of recovery. The course of treatment lasts from 7 to 14 days. Do not use Cefazolin injections for less than 5 days or more than 15 days, because in this case there is a high risk of developing antibiotic-resistant types of microorganisms. These resistant microorganisms are able to cause an infection again, which will have to be treated again, only with the use of another, even stronger antibiotic. Unfortunately, there is a great risk that, to another antibiotic, the microorganism may be resistant. In this case, the prognosis for life is unfavorable, since there are very few antibiotics in the world that can cope with resistant microbes. And if they do not help, then you can only rely on the immunity of the sick.

That is why the use of antibiotics, including Cefazolin, must be treated responsibly. You can not throw injections as soon as the person becomes better, considering the treatment is over. A minimum of 5 days of Cefazolin injections should be made, overcoming pain and reluctance. This is especially true of children. After all, a child is faster and easier than an adult can “acquire” resistant types of microbes that will constantly cause infections that are difficult to treat.

Adverse reactions

The use of antibiotics, especially long-term can cause adverse reactions from various body systems:

  • pruritus;
  • rash in the form of urticaria;
  • a sharp drop in platelet levels in the blood;
  • symptoms of leukemia;
  • the occurrence of hemolytic anemia;
  • ulcers in the mouth and lips;
  • rapidly progressive stomatitis;
  • manifestations of pancreatitis in acute form;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • diarrhea;
  • liver dysfunction;
  • development of bronchospasm;
  • pronounced swelling of the respiratory tract;
  • appearance of skin toxic necrolysis;
  • development of symptoms of granulocytopenia;
  • the appearance of signs similar to interstitial nephritis;
  • hair loss and severe itching in the genital area.

In addition, during the injection itself may begin sweating, accompanied by chills and a transition to muscle cramps, an attack of tachycardia, difficulty breathing, until it stops. If at least one of these symptoms occurs, drug administration immediately stops, the medication is replaced with another medication with the same therapeutic effect. In addition, intramuscular administration of the antibiotic can be painful and tissue consolidation often occurs in the area of ​​the injection.

Symptoms of overdose

Overdose after misuse of the antibiotic Cefazolin (Cefazolin-AKOS) is permissible and it manifests itself with a number of symptoms, such as:

  1. Paresthesia;
  2. Sudden heart rhythm disturbances;
  3. Involuntary muscle contractions;
  4. Convulsive syndrome;
  5. Headaches;
  6. Dizziness;
  7. Vomiting.

The treatment of these symptoms is as follows: first, you need to immediately stop putting injections with the drug, and secondly, if the symptoms bother the patient too much, he needs to start taking medicines that can eliminate them. It is noticed that the body itself contributes to the withdrawal of the antibiotic - with an overdose, hemodialysis is accelerated, which contributes to the early completion of the whole process. Well, if the case is very difficult, then hospitalization occurs and mechanical blood cleaning is used - dialysis.

Special instructions

Before you start using the drug, read the specific instructions:

  1. With caution, the drug is prescribed to patients with gastrointestinal diseases (especially with colitis).
  2. When using cefazolin may appear positive direct and indirect samples of Coombs.
  3. When using cefazolin, it is possible to obtain a false-positive reaction to glucose in the urine.
  4. The safety of the drug in premature babies and children of the first month of life has not been established.
  5. Patients with a history of allergic reactions to penicillins may have an increased sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics.

Compatibility with other drugs

When using the drug, you must consider the interaction with other drugs:

  1. Aminoglycosides increase the risk of kidney damage.
  2. Concurrent use with anticoagulants and diuretics is not recommended.
  3. Loop diuretics and drugs blocking tubular secretion, increase the concentration of cefazolin in plasma.
  4. Pharmaceutically incompatible with aminoglycosides (mutual inactivation). To prepare a solution for on / in the introduction (jet or drip) can not use lidocaine.

Patient Reviews

We offer you to read the reviews of people who used Cefazolin:

  1. Tosh. Good cheap drug. I was stabbed at the hospital for pneumonia. Very painful injections, therefore, for dilution, use not water, but Lidocaine or Novocain will be really easier. Pneumonia on this treatment was also quick, although it was frightening atypical, but it turned out to be the most typical, and besides, the little one could not resist the antibiotic Cefazolin.
  2. Alexandra. Good drug! Not to say that it hurts a lot, but I always do it with Novocaine. Treated them and exacerbation of pyelonephritis 2 times and orvi. Also, when having an rsi in a jar, after taking the medicine, I poured 1 ml of boiled water and dripped into my nose, since the nose was stuffed so that it began to lay my ears. Also, when the filling fell out, and under it there was a terrible inflammation that half the face was already swollen, took Cefazolin, and slightly moistened the ear stick with her saliva, collected powder and put it into the hole and stayed quiet the night before going to the dentist. (This is all the advice of my grandmother-doctor of the Soviet school).
  3. Marina. I was prescribed cefazolin injections for a complicated sore throat. Already after the first injection, the state of health worsened, it became shivering, threw it into heat, then into cold. Subsequent injections led to severe dizziness, headaches, and then rashes and severe itching that caused the whole body to itch. In addition, the injections were very painful, it turns out they needed to be diluted with lidocaine or novocaine, and I was injected with a usual solution in water for injection. The doctor said that this is definitely an allergic reaction, so the drug had to be replaced with another antibiotic. So, much depends on the professionalism of physicians.

Analogs

Structural analogues of the active substance:

  • Antsef;
  • Zolin;
  • Intrazolin;
  • Ifizol;
  • Kefzol;
  • Lysolin;
  • Natsef;
  • Orisolin;
  • Orpin;
  • Totacef;
  • Cesolin;
  • Cefazolin sodium;
  • Cefazolin Sandoz;
  • Cefazolin Elf;
  • Cefazolin "Biohemi";
  • Cefazolin-AKOS;
  • Cefazolin-Ferein;
  • Cefazolin sodium salt;
  • Cefamezin;
  • Cefaprim;
  • Cefesol;
  • Cefopride

Before buying an analogue, consult your doctor.

Shelf life and storage conditions

Store vials of powder recommended in a cool place out of the reach of children. Avoid direct sunlight on the drug.

The shelf life of the powder is 3 years from the date of manufacture. Do not use expired drug.

The solution should be prepared immediately before the introduction, it is unacceptable to store the prepared solution until the next injection.

Watch the video: Cefazolin reconstitution demo (December 2019).

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